Bleeding Heart Flowers: An incredibly fragrant flowering plant.
Permanent herbaceous plants of the Papaveraceae family also include bleeding-heart flowers.
Christmas Cactus: Seasonal Plant
A popular winter-flowering houseplant that can be utilized in almost any indoor setting is the Christmas Cactus (Schlumbergera bridgesii). <!–more–> This is a top contender for Christmas gift-giving because it’s not only simple to maintain but also spreads widely.
This cactus subspecies thrives in an environment that is often moist, gloomy, and cold. It was created in the highlands along the coast of southeast Brazil, close to the Atlantic Ocean. Historical records state that it was first grown in Europe in 1818.
Popular low-maintenance indoor plants that may last for years include Christmas cacti. The festive blooms that bloom over the holidays gave the succulent plant its name, but it may also bloom at other times of the year. There are many different colors available for the orchid-like flowers, including red, pink, purple, orange, and white.
Unlike other desert cacti, the Christmas cactus is native to the coastal rainforests of Brazil. In its natural environment, it is subjected to a lot of moisture and excessive humidity. As a result, it suggests that it needs different care than other cacti in your indoor garden.
Christmas Cactus Overview
Genus Name: Schlumbergera
Common Name: Christmas Cactus
Plant Type: Houseplant
Light: Part Sun
Height: From 6 to 12 inches
Width:1 to 2 ft.
Flower Color: Colors include orange, pink, purple, red, white, and yellow.
Season Features: Autumn bloom, Spring bloom, and Winter bloom
Special Features: Low Maintenance for Containers
Propagation: Seeds and stem cutting
Types Of Christmas Cactus
Schlumbergera X buckleyi has leaf borders with scalloped edges and clusters of satiny blooms that hang on split stalks resembling leaves. It is also known as zygocactus or Christmas cactus.
Most Christmas cacti don’t bloom until mid-December, and many of the plants sold as such are actually Thanksgiving cacti.
This rare Schlumbergera has variegated creamy leaves and magenta blooms with white centers.
Schlumberger a truncata grows a few weeks before Christmas cactus. It consists of two to four teeth with points at the stem section edges.
Which Season Can You Grow Christmas Cactus Plant?
Christmas Cactus typically bloom from early to mid-winter.
How To Grow Christmas Cactus
Christmas cacti require a certain amount of light throughout their flowering season in order to help them form growing buds. Sleep cycles are important for both people and plants. “Be aware that this houseplant, like people, requires 12 to 15 hours of total darkness per day if the buds have not yet developed,” warns Palomares.
For Christmas Cactus growing outside in the summer, this process naturally begins with the arrival of cooler evenings in late summer as fall draws near. From the day you want flowers to start blooming indoors, go back eight weeks. Put your plants in a location where they will receive enough amount of uninterrupted darkness. In other words, not even a lamp or streetlight beaming through a window can be considered light. One approach is to use a grow light on a timer to maintain the plant in a dark area or underground for eight weeks. When the leaf tips have developed buds, move the plant back to its original spot.
According to Palo Mares, Christmas Cactus grows “typically from late October to winter (around January)”. It continues to produce buds and blooms throughout its flowering season, but it slows down in January and doesn’t start up again until the following year.
Christmas Cactus Care
A Christmas plant requires somewhat more maintenance than the majority of other desert cacti that can withstand drought. The Christmas cactus is a tropical rainforest native that needs consistent watering to thrive. From pots and hanging baskets, the stemmed portion of the folded leaves droops and drapes.
A Christmas plant requires somewhat more maintenance than the majority of other desert cacti that can withstand drought. Native to tropical rainforests, the Christmas Cactus requires regular irrigation to thrive. From pots and hanging baskets, the branching parts of the folded leaves drop and drape.
Pruning is often not required unless you want to prune an overgrown Christmas cactus. To prolong the cactus bloom as long as possible, remove going blossoms.
The best time to propagate a Christmas cactus is one to two months after it has finished flowering. Avoid spreading it in the autumn when it is heavily flowering and setting buds. Taking big or little Christmas cactus cuttings can encourage the parent plant to become bigger and bushier, which will lead to more blooms later on. The most effective method of growing Christmas cactus is via stem cuttings. A 4- or 6-inch container should first be half-filled with a growth medium, such as cactus soil, all-purpose potting soil, or a dusty/peat mix. You can root the object in a clear container of filtered water before planting.
The Christmas cactus doesn’t need soil; it may grow as an epiphyte in its natural habitat and is tolerant of most types of earth. Yours will thrive in both common potting soil and loamy, sandy, perlite, and cactus mix. Peat moss is a helpful addition to a more acidic environment. It requires a pH level between 5.5 and 6.2 for optimal development.
Despite being a cactus, its tropical roots cause it to ask for more water than others Gently water the plant, allowing excess water to pass through the drainage holes Allow the soil to air out nearly fully between watering When the leaves pucker and shrivel, the soil is too dry, so you know. During the hot, sunny summer, water the plant twice a week. The plant could need watering for a week if it spends the winter in a sunny window.
To test the moisture content of the soil, stick your finger 2 inches into it; if it seems dry to the touch, water liberally. If you position the plant in a cooler location away from a window during the winter, it could only need watering every two to three weeks.
During the early spring and summer months, feed your Christmas cactus with a half-strength, diluted, water-soluble balanced fertilizer every month Stop feeding when you detect the production of blossom buds, which is usually in late summer or early autumn After the plant flowers, you can start monthly feedings.
A Christmas cactus prefers sun or shade, but you must be careful not to give it too much. The cactus love partial shade or indirect light, but they may tolerate various other situations If, you expose them to full sunlight, ensure It’s in the winter because the plant could get pale and yellow from too much sunlight in the spring and summer.
Temperature And Humidity
The Christmas cactus requires a moisture level, mainly when cultivated in the dry circumstances of heated homes throughout the winter To, increase humidity, spray the plant or lay a pebble tray filled with water beneath the container.
Pests And Diseases
Fungus gnats, flower thrips, aphids, spider mites, and mealy bugs are the most prevalent pests that attack Christmas Cacti. Do not overwater your plant; damp soil attracts these pests the most.
In most circumstances, horticultural oil and insecticidal soap are effective at managing an outbreak. By blotting the little bugs with a cotton ball soaked in alcohol, you can also get rid of them. If other plants are nearby or the Christmas cactus becomes seriously infected, it may not recover and has to be destroyed.
Overwatering causes extensive microbial diseases in plants. Avoid overwatering to keep fungal illnesses at bay. The two typical fungi that can cause stem rot in Christmas cacti are Fusarium and Phytophthora.
Fusarium causes stem rot, which results in brown spots on the stem close to the soil line. Stems of plants affected by Phytophthora rot become wet or drenched near the soil line. Lethal Phytophthora. A Christmas cactus may recover from fusarium if it is discovered in time. However, it is typically challenging to keep. Before using a fungicide as directed on the label, let the soil around the plant dry up.
Common Problems With Christmas Cactus
Holiday cacti are good-living plants that are temperature and humidity sensors they are resilient when kept above freezing levels; nonetheless, they require perfect temperatures and circumstances for profuse flowering throughout the holidays.
Stunted Appearance Or Growth Distortion
Check your Christmas cactus for a mealy bug infestation if you see stunted or deformed growth. Mealybugs resemble small white cotton dots that are 1/8 to 1/4 inch long they travel slowly and frequently appear low on the leaf surface in the dark, warm, damp locations around the cactus’s center stem the insects feed on plant sap and leave behind a sticky honeydew material, which causes mold to grow on the plant.
Leaves Turning Red or Pink
Your Christmas cactus may have had too much sun or not enough water if its leaves become red or pink. Move your plant to a window that receives indirect light if it is currently in a window that receives direct sunlight. If the soil has dried to a depth of little more than one inch, water it more often. When the top of the soil seems dry, a Christmas cactus needs to be watered.
These low-maintenance plants could produce flowers repeatedly! The Christmas cactus is often used throughout the holiday season and with good reason. It’s a flowering succulent that needs minimal upkeep, has exquisite flowers, and with the appropriate care, might live up to 100 years!
Lobelia Plant: An Outdoor Plant
Lobelia is a plant that flowers genus with 415 varieties found mainly in tropical to warm temperate parts of the world,<!–more–> with a few species extending into cooler temperate zones. They are frequently called lobelias.
A large and small annual, perennial, and shrubby plant known as lobelia is found in many different locations and comes in a wide range of hues. There are many species that seem to differ greatly from one another. However, they all have straightforward, alternate leaves and tubular, two-lipped blooms with five lobes. The lowest three lobes may be spaced apart, with the upper two lobes perhaps standing up. They have a bright bloom color and profuse flowering, which adds to their appeal as garden ornaments.
In the majority of USDA zones, lobelia (Lobelia erinus), a delicate annual, is grown as an annual. It often resides in the nursery’s section of annual plants and has several garden uses. However, lobelia spreads quickly.
Most lobelia types have a trailing growth habit, while some clump. Although there are many flower colors available, it is well known for having a real sky-blue tint. The colors offered include lilac, pink, lilac, white, and purple. Most variants have a tiny white “eye” in the center of their blossoms. Although the majority of the cultivars have green foliage, a small number have leaves that have a faint golden hue.
Lobelia Plant Overview
Common Name:Lobelia, yearly lobelia, edging lobelia, and laguna flower are numerous instances of lobelia.
Botanical Name: Lobelia erinus
Plant Type: Annual
Mature Size: 6 -9 in. tall, 9-10 in. wide
Sun Exposure: Full, partial
Soil Type: Moist but well-drained
Soil pH: Acidic, natural
Bloom Time: Summer, fall
Flower Colors: Blue, pink, purple, white, red
Hardiness Zones: 10-11 (USDA)
Native Area: Africa
Toxicity: Toxic to people, toxic to pets
Types Of Lobelia
The term “lobelia” is used to refer to a variety of plants. Some are tough perennials, While some are hardy perennials, others are various species of the delicate perennial Lobelia erinus, which is usually grown as an annual. There are several colors to pick from depending on the type of plant you decide to grow.
Cardinal Flower: Hummingbirds love this hardy annual with red flowers and a straight growth style; it reseeds quickly.
Great Lobelia: Recurrent with blue blooms and an erect growth style.
‘Laguna’ lobelia erinus’: Researchers created this tender perennial with blue flowers and a trailing habit that can endure hot summers better than other trailing lobelias.
Lobelia erinus ‘Alba’: Delicate plant with white blooms that trail.
‘Lilac Fountain’ Lobelia erinus: On a delicate perennial with a hanging habit, there are white blossoms.
Lobelia erinus ‘Rosamund’: Trailing cherry-red perennial with hardy flowers.
Which Season Can You Grow Lobelia Plant?
The colder months are when lobelia blooms the most, from spring through October.
How To Grow Lobelia Plant
Raising lobelia from seed is simple and inexpensive, as with other annual flowers. You will have more success using sources than other methods of spreading lobelia. You’ll also have a broader range of kinds when growing from seed rather than nursery plants.
In cold-winter areas, start lobelia seeds indoors 6 to 8 weeks before your area’s expected last frost date. In mild-winter places, plant the seeds outside in early spring as long as overnight temperatures remain consistently above 50 degrees Celsius.
Spread the tiny seeds evenly on a seedling tray filled with seed-starting soil. However, do not bury the seeds.
Place the uncovered tray near a window that gets enough light.
To hydrate the soil, sprinkle the tray with water.
Continue applying water to the soil daily, or as needed, to keep it wet but not waterlogged. Two to three weeks after seeding, the seeds should begin to germinate.
It’s time to plant your lobelia in the garden if the nighttime temperature is regularly above 50 degrees Celsius. To begin, gently harden off the plants to allow them to acclimatize to the outside environment. Then, carefully separate the seedlings, being careful not to harm their roots, and plant them in the appropriate area outside, whether in the ground or a container.
Plant yearly lobelia plants 4 to 6 inches apart in pots and somewhat more apart in the soil.
Lobelia Plant Care
Although Lobelia erinus is a sensitive perennial that may survive the winter in USDA zones 10-11It is often grown as an annual and dies after its blooming season. Despite its tiny, fragile look, lobelia requires little care. It does not require removing since the plant cleans itself of wasted, small flowers. It is also not eaten by deer. Though lobelia is usually a plant that loves more light than shade, it does suffer when exposed to full sun during sweltering summers. If this happens to your plant, you may revive it by pruning it and supplying regular water.
An annual or perennial flowering plant with no need for maintenance is lobelia. Numerous smaller annual lobelias that are in bloom are self-cleaning and do not require deadheading. To encourage new growth, lobelia plants might benefit from deadheading, trimming, or sporadic cuts during the growing season. To be ready for fresh growth the following year, perennial lobelias can be clipped all the way to the ground in the late winter or fall. Perennial lobelias may benefit from maintenance pruning and deadheading throughout the growing season to maintain an attractive look.
Remove spent flowers and trim spent flower stems at an angle.
Remove stems and blossoms as they dry back.
Cut back forcefully if your lobelia loses its habit, becomes lanky, or seems drooping to encourage new growth.
Why Prune Lobelia Plant
Pruning lobelia is mostly done for general upkeep, as well as for overall health and beauty. As the plant develops and blooms throughout the season, the discarded flowers should be cut off to encourage new development and blooming. When lobelia becomes lanky or out of control with drooping, open behaviors, they should be pruned in addition to deadheading. Lobelia is given an opportunity to recover by being pruned. Pruning may assist to remove unhealthy portions from the plant if your lobelia is stressed as a result of insect or disease pressure.
Lobelia Pruning Tips
You shouldn’t prune a lobelia that has just been planted.
Plan to deadhead or clip your flowers regularly
To encourage new growth, cut back to the ground.
After the season, trim down unwanted growth.
Gardeners like the evergreen perennial lobelia for its vibrant blossoms and ability to draw hummingbirds and butterflies. While some varieties are native to the country, others have been bred to do well in our gardens. The perennial lobelia may also be cultivated from seeds, and it can be divided into new plants by splitting apart clumps of the existing plant Trim the Lobelia in the late spring. Only the recent growth that hasn’t yet bloomed should be removed.
Cuttings should be free of leaves. Use your garden shears to cut a few 4 to 5-inch sections of stem growth from the donor Lobelia plant. Cuts should be inserted into the muddy earth. The majority of the incisions should be visible above ground. Water the pot every other day. Cuttings must be stored in a continually moist environment in order to set. Lobelia is a dependable perennial that is a favorite of gardeners due to its lovely blossoms and ability to attract butterflies and hummingbirds.
The ideal soil for lobelia is wet and well-drained. Don’t allow the environment to grow too wet, though, since this might result in root rot.
Maintain dry but not wet soil with a consistent moisture level. You may not need to offer more water in places with frequent rainfall. In more parched areas, though, expect to water your lobelia every few days during the summer, and more frequently if the weather gets scorching.
Because lobelia is an abundant blooming and heavy feeder, fertilizing it every two weeks with a liquid fertilizer for flowering plants will result in the most excellent results. These are often more wealthy in phosphorus than nitrogen and potassium since phosphorus encourages more blossoms.
Since lobelia isn’t fussy about sunlight, it can grow in conditions ranging from light shade to direct sunlight. Place lobelia in a location where it will only receive early sunlight if your summers are exceptionally hot. Shade to partial shade in the afternoon. Grow it in full sun (as long as you water it frequently) in places with warmer summers to get the most produces flowers.
Temperature and Humidity
The spider mite is the principal insect that can harm lobelia. Light cold water sprays can be used to treat a minor spider mite infestation. In the event of a serious infestation, insecticidal soap, neem oil, or insecticides may be used as a last option. Lobelia is also a favorite of maize earworms, and when they bite holes in the leaves, the plant may become susceptible to fungus-related ailments. Corn earworms can be removed manually and with the use of pesticides before too much harm is done.
Pests And Diseases
The illness begins as leaf spots and progresses to a blight. The following signs of bacterial blight on Lobelia include: A prominent brown border surrounds the early leaf dots on the blooms and leaves of Lobelia plantlets. An aged leaf’s edges may develop leaf spots.
Common Problem With Lobelia
Because of different diseases and light sensitivity, this sensitive plant might have its share of issues.
With lobelia, excessive watering is a common problem. You risk overwatering it because it doesn’t like the heat, which will turn the leaves brown. On the other side, lobelia becomes brown in hot weather. If the lobelia is in a pot but drying out in the sun, try moving the container to shade or providing temporary shade.
Both warm temperatures and excessive dryness can harm lobelia. The leaves may become black and curl up at the margins to protect themselves if the plant is subjected to dryness. Give the plant more shade and water, just as you would with withering foliage.
Mites can harm the plant by draining liquids from its leaves, causing them to become spotty. When you see some spots, apply insecticidal soap to treat the problem.
If the base of the mound appears to be browning but the surrounding foliage isn’t, you may have maize earworms, another type of bug infestation. This could be challenging to correct if the damage (holes in the leaves) has already been done. It is crucial to remove damaged regions as soon as possible to stop the issue from worsening since the damage may make the plant susceptible to fungal diseases.
Benefits Of Lobelia
Numerous alkaloids or chemicals found in lobelias have medicinal or therapeutic properties. Some well-known alkaloids include morphine, nicotine, and caffeine. The most important alkaloid in Lobelia inflate, lobeline, may offer protection from the following illnesses. Asthma and other breathing-related conditions,
ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome),
Dosage, Side Effects, And Safety
Due to the low amount of study, there are no recommended doses or guidelines for lobelia. One study on ADHD patients found that tablets containing up to 30 mg of Lobeline per day appeared to be safe.
However, other negative consequences include nausea, a bitter aftertaste, tongue numbness, irregular heartbeat, and high blood pressure.
Furthermore, lobelia has been associated with vomiting and can be fatal or even lethal when taken in extremely high doses. The deadly portion of the leaf ranges from 0.6 to 1 gram, and 4 grams may be fatal.
Due to a lack of safety studies, children, people on medicines, and pregnant or nursing women should not use lobelia products.
The quantity of the product may vary from what is stated on the label because the FDA does not carefully regulate supplements. Always choose supplements that have undergone independent review.
A flowering plant called lobelia has been utilized for medicinal purposes for decades.
According to some studies, the active ingredient in Lobelia inflate, lobeline, may help cure conditions including drug abuse, depression, ADHD, and asthma.
However, there is little human research, and high doses of lobelia may have fatal side effects. Many would suggest avoiding lobelia in most circumstances due to the paucity of research and the numerous unfavorable side effects.
Vinca Minor Plant: Tips For Growing & Caring.
Vinca Minor is a trailing sub-shrub that forms enormous clonal clusters by spreading along the ground and roots along the stems, sometimes scrambling up to 40 centimeters (16 in) high but never twining or ascending.
Angelonia Plant: Best Plant For Indoor
Angelonia is a Plantaginaceae genus containing more than thirty species from Mexico to Argentina.
African Violet Plants: One Of The Most Beautiful For Houseplants
Sometimes you think about which houseplant is beautiful for the house. your answer is here, African Violet Plants are One Of The Most Beautiful For Houseplant.
The Lithodora is a small genus of flowering plants. The species name is also used as the common name of the most popular species Lithodora diffusa. It is a low-growing floral groundcover that looks great in rock gardens, next to walkways, and around flower borders.
Low Light Indoor Plant
Even while low-light indoor plants are an option if you don’t have many windowsills that receive a lot of sunlight, lighting conditions might be a difficulty for indoor gardeners. They are simple to maintain for, require minimal upkeep, and little light.
Crimson Clover Plant: Planting And Growing Red Clover.
Crimson clover is a perennial legume and an imported winter annual At first look, <!–more–> the red clover’s leaves and stems resemble the crimson clover’s, but the red clover has rounder tips and more hair on its stems and leaves. Seedlings from the crown soon dispersed to form a rosette. This rosette grows as the environment does. In the spring, the flower stalks swiftly develop into tall, pointed conical flower heads with 75 to 125 florets. From the bottom to the top, vivid red florets open one after the other.
The Fabaceae family includes the species of flowering plant known as Trifolium incarnatum, sometimes referred to as crimson clover or Italian clover. It has been embraced by other countries, such as the United States and Japan.
Red clover is a perennial plant often used as fodder grass in many countries. The plant is not at all red. Therefore, the name is deceptive. It has green leaves and hairy stems, generates lovely pink flowers, and may reach heights of 2 – 3 feet and widths of 1 – 2 feet. It also produces spikes that are purple Red clover is regarded as a medicinal herb as well. Its blossoms, which have a volatile oil brimming with flavonoids, are used to make the medicine. The plant often starts to bloom in early spring and lasts through May.
Types Of Crimson Clover
Crimson Clover includes: ‘Dixie,’ ‘Auburn,’ ‘Autauga,’ ‘Chief,’ and ‘Talladega.
‘Dixie,’ ‘Auburn,’ ‘Chief,’ ‘Talladega,’ and ‘Tibbee’ are some of the crimson clover cultivars that self-seed (Duke, 1981; Knight, 1985). About a week before the final two, the initial three are developed (Knight, 1985).
Which Season Can You Grow Crimson Clover Plant?
The ideal time for cultivating red clover from seeds is between January and April and August and November.
How To Grow Crimson Clover
Put the seeds in a soil mixture that drains appropriately 1/4 inch deep. Additionally, you can scatter the seeds on the ground and lightly dust them with dirt. Maintain regular, even moisture in the soil, and keep the plant or location moderately shaded. You will see fresh expansion every two to three weeks.
Crimson Clover Care
Any soil with adequate drainage can support the growth of red clover, although sandy loam is ideal. It could perform poorly in soils that are very acidic or alkaline, wet, or loaded with clay. After being established, it thrives in damp, chilly environments. Autumn planting is frequently hampered in the South by lack of moisture.
This plant may not require pruning, yet you may use the cut pieces as green manure to enrich the soil with minerals.
To spread red clover, you may remove the spikes produced from the protective plant. This allows it to overgrow. Red Clover may swiftly grow and cover any open areas in your yard once it gets established.
A mature, healthy plant should have stolons that branch out at the base. Find one of those. It might have little, tresses-like roots and be below or above the earth. Use clean, well-kept scissors or pruning shears to start cutting the stolen away from the protector plant. Avoid pulling the mother plant out of the ground. It is a crucial phase in the process of developing red clover.
To accelerate the process, dip the cut portion of the stolen into the rooting hormone. However, you are free to omit this step if you choose. Please put it in a container with some potting soil that drains properly. Place the plant in an area with bright, indirect sunshine and give it plenty of water.
Red Clover may be grown in calcium-rich clay, damp soil, or rich sandy soil with excellent drainage. Add lots of organic matter and compost while planting to promote development. It prefers a pH level of 6 to 7.2.
The best approach for cultivating Red Clover is in slightly wet soil. To do this, water the plant just when the ground above it begins to feel dry to the touch. Although it is a drought-tolerant plant, avoid letting the earth become completely dry.
Red Clover often fixes nitrogen, so you might only need to feed it rarely if the soil lacks the required nutrients. Utilize an appropriate fertilizer once every 5 to 6 weeks, reduced to half strength. All you have to do to care for Red Clover while it develops properly is this.
Red clover should be planted where it receives at least three to four hours of direct sunlight daily. Please protect it from the direct afternoon sun. Avoid planting it in a location that receives shade most of the day since it will produce few or no blooms.
Temperature And Humidity
For optimum development, red clover does well in a temperature range of 59-75 °F For 15-23 °C. For germination, the seeds require temperatures such as 60 °F or 15.5 °C. However, plants and seeds may survive as low as -8.3 °C or 17 °F.
Pests And Dieses
Red clover ailments include brown spots and powdery mildew. Fungal infections cause plants to wilt, become yellow, and wither in addition to harming the foliage’s health.
Watch out for bugs and spider mites among pests.
Benefit Of Crimson Clover
Benefit from nitrogen for succeeding crops, which in Michigan is typically between 30 and 60 lbs/A for stands planted in the autumn and removed in the spring: clean surface water, a rise in soil organic content, and a fall in soil erosivity. Use as a species for feed or pasture.
Negatives Of Crimson Clover
The cost of the seeds and the potential for winter death are the two primary disadvantages of crimson clover. However, the development of new types may soon provide a solution to both of these problems.
Disadvantage Of Crimson Clover
Clover is an invasive plant because of how rapidly and broadly its roots spread. The origins may infiltrate even your gardens as they spread out from the margins. A lawn with just clover may seem lumpy and uneven, while one with too much clover may appear patchy.
Red clover’s root system helps to build soil and prevents erosion. More water is applied to the soil, and nutrient release is diminished. Soils are created in preparation for later agricultural systems. Additionally, crimson clover draws minerals from deeper within the soil as a nutrient scavenger.
Nootka Rose Plant
The Nootka Rose is a bristle rose, also known as wild rose. It is a 0.6–3.0-meter-tall perennial shrub of the rose family Rosaceae. Nootka roses can be found from southern Alaska to the coast of northern California; Montana to the north and east and northern New Mexico to the south.