The Coffee Plant is a pretty miniature with glossy green leaves and a confined growth pattern. It makes a surprisingly decent indoor plant in a pot.
The Coffee belongs to the family of flowering plants called Rubiaceae. Coffee beans are the seeds of various species, which are used to flavor various foods and beverages.
The fruits have a particularly sweet taste and, like the seeds, contain caffeine. Coffee plant is native to Ethiopia. It blooms in spring with small white flowers.
The berries are half an inch long and gradually turn from green to black pods. Each of these fruits contains two seeds. These seeds eventually develop into coffee beans that are used to make coffee.
There are more than 120 varieties of coffee that are grown from seeds. The Coffee Arabica is commonly known as “Arabica”. Which accounts for 60-80% of the world’s coffee production.
Coffee Canephora known as Robusta accounts for about 20-40%. Coffee Plants are shrubs or small trees native to tropical and southern Africa as well as tropical Asia.
The plant is one of the most valuable and traded commodity crops in the world and a significant export for many nations, particularly those in Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Africa.
The Coffee plant develops into a medium-sized tree in its natural environment. As a sort of natural plant defence against pests, the caffeine in coffee beans functions as a poison to shield the plant’s seeds.
Coffee Plant Overview
- Botanical Name: Coffea arabica
- Common Name: Coffee plant, Arabian coffee
- Family: Rubiaceae
- Plant Type: Perennial
- Mature Size: 06-15ft
- Sun Exposure: Partial
- Soil Type: Moist
- Soil pH: Acidic
- Bloom Time: Spring
- Flower Color: White
- Hardiness Zones: 09-11 (USDA)
- Native Area: Africa
Coffee Plant Species
The Rubiaceae family includes the genus Coffee, which includes flowering plants. Subtropical and tropical shrubs or tiny trees include coffee species, as do southern African shrubs. They include the following species:
Coffea racemosa: It is sometimes referred to as Inhambane coffee and Racemosa coffee. It is a member of the Rubiaceae family of flowering plants. There is a minor amount of caffeine in it naturally.
Coffea arabica ‘Nana’: This miniature cultivar, which only reaches a height of 12 inches, is perfect for growing inside.
Coffea canephora: This species, also referred to as Robusta coffee, is native to sub-Saharan Africa. Although the trees are powerful, the coffee beans are not as popular as arabica beans since they have a stronger, harsher taste.
Coffea liberica: It was first found in Liberia and is a kind that is indigenous to central and western Africa. It yields huge fruits with a caffeine concentration that is lower than that of Robusta beans but higher than that of arabica beans.
How To Grow Coffee Plant
Coffee plants need a warm location with strong indirect light. They do best when cultivated indoors or in a greenhouse. Coffee beans that grow on the coffee plant can be germinated, but store-bought coffee beans cannot be germinated.
Cherry fruit should be picked when it is a vibrant shade of red. Rub the flesh to remove seeds or pods and wash off any dirt. Allow them to air dry for a few weeks so that they are completely dry.
After that, soak the beans in water for 24 hours. Place it in a moist but well-drained area of sand. If you water it daily, the beans will sprout in two to four months. After they sprout, carefully pick each one and place it in acidic, well-drained soil. Water twice a week.
Also Read: Arizona Cypress Plant
The Coffee plants do not need much pruning, but should be pruned in the spring with clean, sharp gardening shears. You can prune the coffee plant back if you don’t need it to look more bushy and branchy.
Exposed dead and old branches should be completely removed. Remove any leaves growing straight up from the bottom of the trunk. Remove healthy branches above each leaf node. Cut the plant back to the top of the main branch if you want to control its growth.
Every one to two years, prune the coffee plants. The sucker may need to be pulled out. They often emerge from the side of the trunk.
The Coffee plants can be grown from seeds or cuttings. It can be cut and grown in just 16 days, the plant takes at least 90 days to fully mature. Cuttings or air layers can be used to grow coffee plants.
Early summer is the ideal time to prune. During this period a few branches should be removed each week to prevent them from becoming overcrowded or overgrown. Remove all but the top two leaves from an 8- to 10-inch-long upright shoot.
Then plant the cutting in a small pot filled with soilless potting mix, keeping the soil sufficiently moist.
You will know that roots have formed when you can gently pull the plant and feel resistance.
Coffee Plant Care
The Coffea Arabica plant differs from other plants in several ways. It needs a lot of space, plenty of light and regular watering. Coffee plants thrive best in environments that resemble those found in tropical, mid-altitude mountain regions.
Coffee plants need at least five hours of sunlight per day to produce fruit. It needs plenty of water, high humidity, somewhat cool temperatures.
Requires rich, slightly acidic soil with good drainage and all of the above conditions. Watering at least once a week is necessary to keep the soil moist. It is important to fertilize when necessary.
Soil And Fertilizer
Coffee plants prefer acidic soil with a pH between 5 and 6. Many types of soil can be used to cultivate coffee. The Bolovans Plateau has a large portion of volcanic red soil that is suitable for growing coffee.
Fertilize with a light liquid fertilizer, every two weeks during the growing season. Fertilization needs to be done about once during the winter months.
Coffee trees need plenty of potash, nitrogen and phosphoric acid. Spread the compost in a ring around each one, so that nothing gets on the stems, branches or leaves of the coffee plant.
Light And Water
Coffee plants in lower latitudes like partial or full sunlight. Since they are understory plants, they do not grow well in intense, direct sunlight. The coffee plant prefers strong indirect sunlight and thrives in the lower layers of Ethiopian forests.
Coffee production also requires water. During the growing season, coffee plants need regular access to water. Freshly planted seedlings should be watered quickly and frequently, keeping the soil moist but not soggy. Use water bottle irrigation during dry periods or when normal rainfall is irregular.
Temperature and Humidity
The ideal average temperature range for coffee plants is between 65 and 70 degrees at night and between 70 and 80 degrees during the day. High temperatures can accelerate growth. They are not the best conditions for growing their plants.
This plant usually grows on tropical mountain sides. They work best in very humid settings. The humidity level of at least 50% should be sufficient for it. Low humidity levels can be indicated by browning leaves.
Pests and Diseases
The coffee plant is vulnerable to pests and diseases, just like any other crop. Your coffee crop might be ruined by pests and illnesses. Indoor-grown coffee plants occasionally experience mealybug, aphid, and mite infestations. The presence of tiny webs, clumps of white powdery residue, or obvious insects on plants are indications of an infestation.
Bacterial blight Pseudomonas Syringe: Leaves with water-soaked areas that dry up and turn brown and necrotic with a yellow halo. Shoot tip necrosis that rapidly spreads down the branches. Dead, blackened leaves do not fall from the tree.