The Yellow Birch also known as the silver, golden, or swamp birch, is a timber and ornamental tree of the Betulaceae family.
Golden bark of the tree is referenced in its regional names. Previously, these species was known as Betula lutea.
Yellow birch, sometimes known as merisier, which is the French term for wild cherry, is the provincial tree of Quebec. Those trees have bark that splits into papery, thin, curved strips.
The bark curls get more pronounced as the tree ages, and shreds might develop. Like the twigs, the inner bark has a flavor and scent similar to wintergreen.
Yellow Birch Plant
Yellow birch is a native deciduous tree found in New York state and in the Adirondack Mountains. The tree reaches a height of 60 to 80 feet and usually has a trunk of 2-3 feet in diameter.
Golden brich tree’s lifespan is typically 150 years, although some examples of old-growth forests can live up to 300 years. Bark usually stops cutting after the tree exceeds one foot in diameter. Yellow birch and sweet birch have nearly identical leaf forms, and both have a wintergreen odor when crushed.
François André Michaux initially identified yellow birch as Betula lutea in 1812. Betula allegheniensis is a new, closely related species of birch first described by Nathaniel Lord Britton in 1904.
It forms its natural range from Newfoundland to Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, southern Quebec, the southeast corner of Ontario, Manitoba in Canada, west to Minnesota, and the southern Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia.
Yellow Birch Plant Overview
- Common Name: Silver birch, Golden birch and Swamp birch
- Botanical Name: Betula allegheniensis
- Family: Betulaceae
- Plant Type: Deciduous tree
- Mature Size: 60-75 ft.
- Sun Exposure: Full sun, partial sun
- Soil Type: Fertile sandy loam, well-drained
- Soil pH: Neutral, acidic, alkaline
- Bloom Time: Spring
- Flower Color: Yellow
- Hardiness Zones: 3-7 (USDA)
- Native Area: North America
Yellow Birch Plant Species
Trees, reaching a height of 30 m; straight trunk; Narrow rounded crown. When mature, the bark of juvenile trunks and branches is shiny, smooth, irregularly peeling or sometimes black and closely grained. It has different species.
(1) Heartleaf Birch (Betula Cordifolia Regal):Its leaves usually have 9-12 pairs of secondary veins, and its bark, which exfoliates in thin strips and ranges in color from white to bronze, can be used to identify it. The heartleaf bears drooping, globular fruiting catkins.
(2) White Birch (Betula Papyrifera Marshall): Has white bark that exfoliates in sheets and can be distinguished from yellow birch. Additionally, the oval leaves of white birch trees contain 6-9 pairs of secondary veins that are largest near the base.
How To Grow Yellow Birch Plant
Yellow birch needs overhead light, soil moisture and nutrients to compete with its fast-growing peers. Plant yellow birch on deep, well-drained loam and sandy loam soils protected from acidic soil rot.
These trees are susceptible to overexposure after heavy pruning, and they often grow epicormic branches from dormant buds.
Pruning is advised to maintain a healthy tree, but postpone it until the growing season. The bronze birch borer is active in the spring and is attracted to newly made cuts in the tree and is capable of causing damage, which is a major reason for delaying pruning. Pruning promotes tree growth. Cuts come in three different flavors namely main cut, undercut and tie
Yellow birch cuttings can be used for propagation. As a more economical and ecologically responsible option than buying brand-new trees from a nursery, propagation aids in the genetic homogeneity of the plants. Guidelines for growing this plant:
(1) Section the stems into 4- to 6-inch sections using scissors, then add well-drained rooting material to the container. Ensure that the pot has effective drainage.
(2) Spray water into the drainage holes in the container and out of the rooting media. Make holes in the rooting material that are evenly spaced apart, and then plant the cutting by firmly planting it in the soil.
(3)For assist maintain moisture, you might cover the clippings. Put the pot in a spot with bright, ambient light. When the cuttings are 1/2 inch long, transfer them using the fingers.
Yellow Birch Plant Care
Choosing the right location is important when planting yellow birch because of its expansive canopy. To accommodate its canopy, you need to make sure there is enough space and sunlight. Yellow birch should be planted in soil that drains well and receives water only during periods of drought.
Prune yellow birch gently to ensure healthy growth. Once plants are established, they do not need fertilizer; However, seedlings may benefit from mild treatment. It is susceptible to pests and diseases that affect all birches, including birch borer infestation and root rot.
Early spring is the best time to transplant. Maintain form by pruning, but avoid doing so when the plant is actively growing. Wait until fall, when the growing season ends.
Soil And Fertilizer
Yellow birch plants thrive on slightly acidic soils with a pH range of 5.0 to 6.5, however this might vary across species. Plant yellow birch in areas with acidic soil that are protected from compaction. Because of its thin root system, soil disturbance can easily damage it.
It is important to choose a suitable location for planting and stay away from roads and other locations that may compact the soil. Every spring and summer, fertilize if the soil is deficient in certain nutrients or has an alkaline ph.
Use fertilizers with a delayed release. Fertilizer spikes are practical and easy to use. Fertilize in spring or early summer when the tree is at its fastest growth, when it needs the most nutrients.
Light And Water
Watering for 30 seconds twice a week should be plenty for newly planted yellow birch, which can be sensitive to too little and too much moisture. The soil should be moist, which means it should not be too dry or wet.
Water is not needed after the tree is established, unless it is summer. Place a hose at the base of the tree and water it in summer, letting the water drip gently over the roots.
Yellow birch thrives in areas that receive 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight per day and cool, shady soil.
Swamp birch is sensitive to soil heat or dryness due to its very thin root system. The best location for yellow birch cultivation in the Northern Hemisphere is between the north and east sides of the house, where the house can provide shade in the afternoon.
Temperature And Humidity
Yellow birch can thrive in a range of soils like other birch trees, but prefers sandy loam. Although it favors somewhat acidic soils, it can grow in soils with a wide pH range and handles alkaline soils well. Ideal soil should be both rich and well-drained.
Swamp birch thrives in moist environments, such as those found in streams. It also works poorly where there is standing water. It does not do well in partial shade; It needs full light to grow. It is rarely seen as a dominant species and is often found singly or in small groups.
This tree often thrives in cooler climates; It does not perform well in regions with dry climates or exceptionally hot summers. It grows well in soil with a pH of 4 to 8.
Pests And Diseases
Yellow birch pests are particularly susceptible to infestation by birch leaf miners, borers and birch skeletons. Although care must be taken and the tree must be pruned after it stops growing, it is relatively pest-resistant.
Canker and dieback are the two diseases that most frequently damage yellow birch. Usually, this fungus enters seedlings through small holes and cracks, weakening the stem and dispersing it in the wind.